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the putting it all together exercise will require you to use all elements of the workbook to design a very simple airline schedule

Aircraft Scheduling Workbook

AVIA 3120

Fleet Planning and Scheduling

Part 2 Assignment

Scheduling Workbook Part 2 Instructions

Part 2 of the Workbook assignment includes the sections on Gate Restrictions, Time Zones and a comprehensive exercise titled “Putting It All Together”.The “Putting It All Together” exercise will require you to use all elements of the Workbook to design a very simple airline schedule.

This Part 2 of the workbook consists of various templates for students to complete to submit their work for each exercise in a structured format.If students need to deviate outside of the established templates, you are free to do so as long as the final answers are readily identifiable.

For all references, refer to the full Aircraft Scheduling Workbook for full details and information.Additional information is as follows:

1. For the Gate Restriction and Time Zone exercises, complete and submit your responses to any area which is shaded in yellow.

Refer to the Sample Exercise in the workbook and compare it to the sample answer solution below for insight on how to complete these exercises.

List or show ALL of your assumptions so that your logic can be followed throughout the exercise.This will enable students to receive partial credit even if the answers are incorrect if your assumptions or logic can be followed.Students do not have to list assumptions or logic but if they do not, then no partial credit can be given if the final answers are incorrect.

2.For the Putting It All Together exercise, there is NO set format or template for students to submit their airline schedule.You must build your own format/template to reflect the airline schedule you construct as part of this exercise.This exercise is intentionally vague in its requirement for the final format to determine if students can demonstrate their knowledge of airline schedule construction.

Submit your work as a Word document in one (1) file to the Dropbox no later than SFriday, April 20th at 11:55pm.
Gate Restriction Exercises

Sample Exercise

This exercise from the workbook pertains to the flights operating at Myrtle Beach, SC.

Comments

1st Aircraft Arrival Time AT GATE

1400

(Time)

This is 2pm on the 24-hour clock

Turnaround Time

32

(Minutes)

Turnaround time is 32 minutes

1st Aircraft Departure Time

1432

(Time)

This is 2:32pm on the 24 hour clock and is calculated by adding the arrival time plus the turnaround time

2nd Aircraft Arrival Time

1432

(Time

2nd aircraft can arrive at the same time the first aircraft is departing

Block Time from Departure Airport

141

(Minutes)

Block time for Aircraft No. 2 from its’ departure airport in MINUTES.2 hours + 21 minutes = 141 minutes

Departure Time of 2nd Aircraft from the Departure Airport

1211

(Time)

The departure time for the 2nd aircraft is 1432 minus 141 minutes which equals 1211 on the 24-hour clock


Gate Restriction Exercise No. 1

This exercise pertains to the aircraft operating at NY LaGuardia Airport.The difference in this exercise is the aircraft taxi times.Be sure you are calculating all times from when the aircraft is actually on the gate

Comments

1st Aircraft Arrival Time AT GATE

(Time)

Turnaround Time

(Minutes)

1st Aircraft Departure Time

(Time)

2nd Aircraft Arrival Time

(Time

Block Time from Departure Airport

(Minutes)

Departure Time of 2nd Aircraft

(Time)

from Departure Airport

Comments or Assumptions:

Gate Restriction Exercise No. 2

This exercise pertains to aircraft operating at Miami International Airport.In this exercise, students need to carefully consider the total turnaround time and use what you know about concurrent and non-concurrent turnaround activities.

Comments

1st Aircraft Arrival Time AT GATE

(Time)

Turnaround Time

(Minutes)

1st Aircraft Departure Time

(Time)

2nd Aircraft Arrival Time

(Time

Block Time from Departure Airport

(Minutes)

Departure Time of 2nd Aircraft

(Time)

from Departure Airport

Comments or Assumptions:


Gate Restriction Exercise No. 3

This exercise pertains to operations at the Las Vegas International Airport.In this exercise, students need to carefully calculate the BLOCK TIME for the 2nd aircraft in order to derive the correct answer.

Comments

1st Aircraft Arrival Time AT GATE

(Time)

Turnaround Time

(Minutes)

1st Aircraft Departure Time

(Time)

2nd Aircraft Arrival Time

(Time

Block Time from Departure Airport

(Minutes)

Departure Time of 2nd Aircraft

(Time)

from Departure Airport

Comments or Assumptions:

Time Zone Effects Exercises

Sample Exercise

This exercise demonstrates the time zone change effects for a flight from Chicago (ORD) to Seattle (SEA). Use the Time Zone map on page 31 of the workbook.

Comments

Departure Airport

ORD

Airport code for Chicago Ohare Airport

Departure Airport Time Zone

Central

Departure Airport Time

7:00 AM

This time is 0700 on the 24-hour clock

Block Time from Departure Airport to Arrival Airport

3 hours

Block time from Origin to Destination

Arrival Airport

SEA

Airport Code for Seattle

Arrival Airport Time Zone

Pacific

# Hours Difference between Departure Airport and Arrival Airport

-2

Refer to the map in the Workbook.The Pacific Time Zone is 2 hours BEHIND the Central Time Zone (= minus hours)

Arrival Time at Destination

8:00 AM

When it is 7:00 AM in Chicago, it is 5:00 AM in Seattle (2 hours behind).Essentially the flight departs Chicago at 5:00 AM SEATTLE time.Departing at 5:00 AM and flying for 3 hours (the block time) means the flight arrives in SEA at 8:00 AM .

Comments or Assumptions:

Time Zone Effect Exercise No. 1

This exercise refers to the flight from San Diego, California (SAN) to Honolulu, Hawaii (HNL).What is the local arrival time for this flight at HNL?Use the Time Zone map on page 31 of the workbook to assist in calculating differences between time zones.

Comments

Departure Airport

Departure Airport Time Zone

Departure Airport Time

Block Time from Departure

Airport to Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport Time Zone

# Hours Difference between

Departure Airport and

Arrival Airport

Arrival Time at Destination

Comments or Assumptions:

Time Zone Effect Exercise No. 2

This exercise refers to the flight from Denver, CO (DEN) to Washington, DC (DCA).What is the local arrival time for this flight?Use the Time Zone map on page 31 of the workbook to assist in calculating differences between time zones.

Comments

Departure Airport

Departure Airport Time Zone

Departure Airport Time

Block Time from Departure

Airport to Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport Time Zone

# Hours Difference between

Departure Airport and

Arrival Airport

Arrival Time at Destination

Comments or Assumptions:

Time Zone Effect Exercise No. 3

This exercise refers to the flight from Orlando, FL (MCO) to New York, NY (LGA).What is the local arrival time for this flight?Use the Time Zone map on page 31 of the workbook to assist in calculating differences between time zones.

Comments

Departure Airport

Departure Airport Time Zone

Departure Airport Time

Block Time from Departure

Airport to Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport

Arrival Airport Time Zone

# Hours Difference between

Departure Airport and

Arrival Airport

Arrival Time at Destination

Comments or Assumptions:

Putting It All Together Exercise

Create a workable airline schedule based on the following data:

(Make assumptions where you feel necessary but be sure to explain them in the analysis.)You will need to research the distances between each city pair and any restrictions at each airport that might impact your schedule plan.

Airline Schedule Requirements:

Operate two daily round trips from Atlanta (ATL) to Portland, OR (PDX) and three daily round trips from Atlanta (ATL) to Portland, ME (PWM).All flights originate from PWM and PDX at the start of the day.

Aircraft:

There are two aircraft available.Each aircraft requires:

Only passenger/cargo removal and boarding at both Portland airports.

Catering/cleaning, maintenance, lavatory servicing and refueling in addition to passenger/ cargo removal and boarding at the Atlanta hub.

(Use THE TURNAROUND TIME DATA ON PAGE 20 OF THE WORKBOOK to calculate the turnaround time at all airports).

Block Times:

The two aircraft are identical.

Both aircraft average 350 mph during their respective flights.

Taxi Out time for Portland, ME is 5 minutes.Taxi In time is 7 minutes.

Taxi Out time for Portland, OR is 3 minutes.Taxi In time is 9 minutes.

Taxi Out time for Atlanta is 14 minutes.Taxi In time is 7 minutes.

(HINT:You must determine the distances between the cities to calculate the block times!Use statute miles.)

For this exercise, students are required to build an airline flight schedule to represent the above conditions.Students must list departure times at each city, arrival times at each city, turnaround times, any restrictions at each of the airports which might impact the schedule, etc.The schedule is for one (1) calendar day.In other words, students do not have to consider overnight maintenance activities or crew issues.

Show all of your work and assumptions in whatever format properly reflects your schedule.

Airline Schedule Development

Extra information

aft Scheduling Workbook

AVIA 3120

Fleet Planning and Scheduling

Block Times

INTRODUCTION

Block Time is a vital component of schedule development when establishing an airline flight schedule.It is determined by adding several individual time components that must be balanced in order to ensure that a schedule can be both created, and more importantly, operated successfully.

Block Time is defined as the time interval between the points at which the “blocks” (now referred to as “chocks”) are removed from around the wheels at departure to the time the “blocks” (“chocks”) are re-inserted at arrival.“Blocks” are traditionally removed only when the aircraft is ready to depart the gate and are inserted as soon as the aircraft stops at the gate at the destination airport.Thus, “block time” is synonymous with aircraft movement.

The key time components of Block Time include:

Taxi Out

Aircraft Leaves the Runway

BLOCK TIME

FLIGHT TIME

Climb

Cruise

Descent

Aircraft Lands

Taxi In

DATA SOURCES

How do airlines capture block and flight times?The most important data captured in an airline operation are referred to as “OOOI” times.Most major airlines now use an electronic system onboard the aircraft to capture OOOI times, which are then transmitted electronically to company headquarters via a radio system known as ACARS.For the “official” definition of the OOOI times, as defined by the U.S. government for consistent record keeping purposes among all U.S. airlines, see this link:http://aspmhelp.faa.gov/index.php/OOOI_Data

OOOI stands for:

“Out” time – when the blocks are removed from around the wheels.Some aircraft measure “Out” when a combination of events occur such as when all doors are closed (passenger and cargo doors) and the aircraft parking brake is released. Additionally, some airlines have a separate, but internal definition of “Out” for pilot pay purposes.

“Off” time – when the aircraft is “Off” of the ground.This is detected by a sensor onboard the aircraft known as the “Air/Ground Sense Switch”. This switch senses whether or not there is weight on the aircraft wheels.When there is weight on the wheels, the aircraft must be on the ground.When there is no weight on the wheels, the aircraft must be in the air.

“On” time – the opposite of the Off time.The On time is registered when the Air/Ground sense switch detects the aircraft has landed.

“In” time – when the aircraft has arrived at the destination and the blocks are reinserted behind the wheels.Most aircraft measure the “In” time when any door is opened after the parking brake is set in the cockpit.

Looking back at the OOOI data, we can see that “Block Time” is simply the elapsed time between the “Out” and “In” times, while the Flight Time is simply the elapsed time between the “Off” and “On” times.

ADDITIONAL DISCUSSION

Taxi Out consists of several components, including the time needed to either “push” the aircraft back from the gate with ground equipment or “power” it away from the gate using aircraft engines.The method may depend on the aircraft orientation to the terminal building, as well as the actual time it takes for the aircraft to taxi to the takeoff point on the airport and any “hold” time waiting for the take-off roll.When establishing a schedule block time, Taxi Out is estimated by assessing historical data.

Airlines (other than recent start-up airlines) have sophisticated databases for actual taxi times, which include departure/arrival airport, time of day (ex.: 8am to 10am is busier than 1pm to 4pm), day of week (ex.: Monday and Friday are busier than Tuesday and Wednesday), month (ex.: June, July, August are busier than April or September) holiday periods (think Thanksgiving week), etc.Airlines generally do not include any “additive” for inclement weather because that component is too variable to rely on.In the event of seasonal weather patterns (such as fog in San Francisco in the summer), those extended taxi times will already be reflected in the historic taxi times.

Taxi Out, by definition, is the elapsed time interval between the “Out” time and the “Off” time and is calculated by using OOOI data.

Flight time is determined by adding the estimated times for each of the five components listed above.Depending upon the distance between the two airports, the cruise time can vary from a large majority of the flight time to as little as zero (think of a flight from Atlanta to Columbus, GA).The majority of commercial airline flights generally exhibit some cruise component.The times that are used depend on several important variables including the climb performance capability of the specific aircraft, its designed cruise speed, and the relative air traffic congestion at the arrival airport.When establishing a scheduled flight time, the schedulers will utilize an average speed throughout the flight profile.

Taxi In time is determined by adding the ground taxi time at the arrival airport as well as the time needed by the ground crew to guide the aircraft into the arrival gate and “chock” the wheels.For the scheduler, these times are once again determined by looking at the history as well as any changes to the airport and ground staff.The Taxi In time is the elapsed time between the “On” time and the “In” time and is, once again, derived from OOOI data.

Flight Time example:

Aircraft 1 has an average flight profile speed of 375 mph (generally aircraft speeds are stated in knots –nautical miles per hour – but for simplicity we will stick with statute miles per hour).The distance from departure airport A to arrival airport B is 938 miles. Flight time is established by dividing the distance by the avg. speed:

938 miles / 375 mph = 2.50 hours

To determine Block time, the scheduler would add the estimated taxi in and taxi out times to the estimated flight time.

Block Time example:

The taxi out times for Airport A vary throughout the day with the following results:

Flight 1:10 min.

Flight 2:8 min.

Flight 3:7 min.

Flight 4:11 min.

The taxi in times vary at Airport B bus have historically been as follows:

Flight 1:5 min.

Flight 2:7 min.

Flight 3:6 min.

Flight 4:6 min.

Flight Distance:938 miles

Average Flight profile speed:375 mph

Block Time sample:

Block Time = Taxi Out + Flight Time + Taxi In

Average Taxi out =(10 + 8 + 7 + 11) / 4 = 9 minutes

Average Taxi In = (5 + 7 + 6 + 6) / 4 = 6 minutes

Average Flight time = 938 miles / 375 mph = 2.50 hours

In order to determine the block time, the units must be the same (can’t add minutes and hours).Convert hours to minutes:

2.50 hours x 60 minutes / hr = 150.0 minutes

Total Scheduled Block Time = 150.0 + 9 + 6 = 165.0 minutes

As we discussed earlier, the Block Times will become the basis for many of our scheduling assessments including time schedules and costing numbers.

Block Time Exercises

Determine the average Taxi Out times:

Taxi Out

Flight 1

Taxi Out

Flight 2

Taxi Out

Flight 3

Taxi Out

Flight 4

Average

Taxi Out

10

15

10

7

10.5

11

11

13

9

8

8

8

4

9

10

11

12

Determine the average Taxi In times:

Taxi In

Flight 1

Taxi In

Flight 2

Taxi In

Flight 3

Taxi In

Flight 4

Average

Taxi In

5

6

6

5

5

6

6

6

6

7

7

6

8

4

6

8

6

Block Time Exercises (cont)

Determine the average Flight Times:

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Aircraft

Type

Avg Flight

Profile Speed

(MPH)

City Pair Distance

(Miles)

Flight Time (Hours)

Flight Time (Minutes)

A1A

375

750

2

120

B2B

400